Date: Mon, 8 Jul 1996 23:05:07 -0700
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From: "Bill Anderson" 
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Subject: CM> History via T-SHIRTS, Buttons.
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Sender: "Bill Anderson" 
Subject: Re: CM> History via T-SHIRTS, Multiple Posts.

What about buttons?

I have a button from a 1976 show with the year in binary, but the binary
is wrong. I think I have buttons dating back to 1972 or maybe a little
earlier.

Bill Anderson
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Date: Mon, 8 Jul 1996 23:10:09 -0700
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From: Joshua Lederberg 
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Subject: CM> Origins of the word "ghost in the machine."
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Sender: Joshua Lederberg 
Subject: CM> Origins of the word "ghost in the machine."

<<<<<
>Sarah Stein writes
>    Can anyone tell me the origins and meaning of the phrase "ghost in the
machine," as well as some >history of its usage?
>>>>

This is the title of a book by Arthur Koestler, and refers to the
purported inadequacy of mechanistic theory to account for the
"soul".  It is equivalent to Bergson's elan vital; and the counter-
statement is nowhere pressed more forcefully than by Francis Crick in
the title of his latest book.

Koestler is also using the phrase in the context of original sin,
if I may paraphrase, that man's evolutionary heritage ensures an
irreducible propensity for violence.

CN PR6021/K78/G427
Aa Koestler, Arthur
TI The ghost in the machine.
CL 384 p.
PP New York: Macmillan.
DA 1967.

CN BF311/C928
Aa Crick, Francis
TI The astonishing hypothesis: the scientific search for the soul.
CL 317 p.
PP New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
DA 1994.

I debated this with Koestler in:

177.  Lederberg, J., 1970.
      "Orthobiosis: The Perfection of Man" in Nobel Symposium XIV
      The Place of Value in a World of Facts, held in Stockholm,
      Sweden, 9/69 (Arne Tiselius and Sam Nilsson, eds.),
      John Wiley & Sons, In., New York, p.29-58.

(and see a brief essay at tail of this message.

My library has another book with an equivalent title:

CN BF367/K8601
Aa Kosslyn, Stephen Michael
TI Ghosts in the mind's machine: creating and usi